Sunday, February 10, 2019

Module 3: Technology Integration

flickr.com/schopie1
Integrating digital technologies into your curriculum is much more than just adding a computer to the lesson. Technology must be considered as a tool that will support learning experiences. It must be selected based upon pedagogical needs rather than the other way around.

Effective learning involves challenging learners with situations that are relevant to their lives and are challenging enough to interest them and engage them in the learning process. When educators discuss levels of intellectual challenge, they typically compare higher-order thinking to lower-order thinking.  These terms are best described by using Bloom's Taxonomy.

Thinking Blooms
Bloom's Taxonomy was first published in 1954 when Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues wanted to create a hierarchy of terms that they could use when they were describing various types of questions that they might use on a test.  Since then, the taxonomy has taken on a broader meaning which educators used to also describe educational activities.

In the 1990s, one of Bloom's students, Lorin Anderson, lead a group of cognitive psychologists who reconsidered Bloom's taxonomy and reworked it to reflect 21st century learning. You will notice that the new taxonomy has changed the static verbs to active verbs by adding "ing" to the end. They also removed Synthesis and placed Creating on the top.
While Bloom's Taxonomy is not an emphasis of this module, it is a common ground for all educators. 


Kathy Schrock created a page called Blooomin' Apps.  She provides an interesting graphic where she proposes that Creativity is the main hub of ALL levels of thinking.   

Further down the page, Schrock actually aligns a plethora of online apps with the various Bloom Levels.

Is there any sense in classifying teaching strategies, questions, online tools using an organizer like Bloom's Taxonomy? Can pedagogical activities actually be restricted to one of 6 classifications? Probably not. Grouping tools like these are designed to provide vocabulary for discussions between professionals.  Using these classifications I can distinguish teaching for memorization or developing problem-solving skills.

Adding Technology to the Mix
Technology can be used in a learning environment but will it make a difference? It all depends on HOW technology is used. Like Bloom's Taxonomy, technology can be integrated through a variety of ways. These may include teachers who operate at a basic level by using PowerPoint presentations to support their lecture-driven methods. They also include the teachers who step back and encourage students to use these tools in innovative ways to create new projects and experiences.

The problem has been to find a vocabulary to define these various levels of integration.  Apple Computer sponsored a decade-long research project entitled Apple Classrooms of the Tomorrow (ACOT). This project involved providing technology-rich classrooms by filling them with Apple IIgs computers AND providing one for each of the students' homes (20th century 1:1 computing.)  As they examined the various levels on which teachers used technology, they identified 5 stages including: Entry, Adoption, Adaption, Appropriation, and Innovation.  Please note that these levels of adoption exist in any teaching/learning situation whether it is in corporate, PK-12 or post-secondary settings.

SAMR -  Substitute/Augment/Modify/Redefine
Another model that is popular in schools today is the SAMR model. It was developed by Ruben R. Puentedura, Ph.D. to describe a ladder of implementation that occurs as you integrate technology into your curriculum. 

Here is a video that describes the four levels of SAMR:



Did it make sense?  Would you be able to identify and define the 4 levels of SAMR?
If not, here is a Pinterest board that I found that is dedicated to SAMR.  Did you find anything that better fit your learning style?

How would you match the ACOT 5 stages and the SAMR model?  Do they directly link to one another?

ACOT 5 Stages                             SAMR
Entry                                               Simulation
Adoption                                         Augmentation
Adaption                                         Modification
Appropriation                                  Redefinition
Innovation

How would YOU compare the ACOT 5 Stages and SAMR?  Explore your ideas using this Google Drawing.  You can't change the original, but you can make a copy of it and then modify it any way you can imagine.

Visit this Sophie tutorial about "Using SAMR to Transform the Classroom" by Tammy Austin.  Watch her video and then take the quiz in the upper right corner as many times as necessary to master the SAMR concept.

Technology Integration Matrix
The key to successful integration requires a system to integrate the research on Learning Environments with what has been learned about technology adoption. In 2005, the Florida Department of Education created their Technology Integration Matrix (TIM).  This is a matrix that uses a series of 5 steps in technology adoption that is similar to the ACOT set.  It also has a set of desired learning environment characteristics which include Active, Collaborative, Constructive, Authentic and Goal-Directed. 

USE THIS MATRIX: While the Florida TIM was the original, I would like to suggest that you savor the  Arizona flavor of this matrix. It is essentially the same but it has video examples sorted by grade level.  Past students have noted that this matrix is easier to understand and use.

Go see Arizona TIM and play around for a while to see what they have to offer.  You will find video examples of lessons and lesson plans for a variety of subjects.

Below is a 13-minute video of an ISTE presentation that describes the Arizona TIM.  It is quite informative.


NOTE: I have been looking for such a matrix that displays this in a corporate training format, but to no avail.



Here is a link to some summary descriptors for the TIM.

Barriers to Technology Integration
Change is not always easy.  Even if innovation can obviously improve learning situations, there are a number of things that can get in the way.  In some cases, it has to do with institutional barriers that get in the way.  Review (look for the highpoints) an article, Barriers to Adopting Emerging Technologies in Education by Rogers.  This article looks at potential problems in the PK-12 as well as the University level schools.

Return to the Module 3 assignment description to see what you can do with all of your newly developed knowledge. 

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Module 2: Creating 21st Century Learning


The 21st Century Classroom may use technology to enable students to access tools and information, but it isn't what will enable us to reach the needs of our students. We will address our students' needs when we take the time to identify their needs and act accordingly.  


You may have seen Eric Sheninger at ITEC.  He is an accomplished educator who is presently the Director of Technology and Innovation at a school district in New Jersey.  He shares his perspective from a district perspective about what it takes to optimize education today.  How does this compare to what you are doing in your schools?


  
On a more teacher-oriented basis, here is Kayla Delzer who is sharing how she has reimagined learning and how she addresses it in her 3rd grade classroom.




21st Century Skills
It's been said that if Benjamin Franklin arrived in the 21st century, he would be overwhelmed by the mass of technology and humanity, but would feel "right at home" in a school classroom. Students' needs have changed but we typically have "21st century students being taught by 20th century teachers in 19th century schools."

What is the difference between 20th and 21st century schools? 
Standards are nice, but what is a 21st Century Education, really?  

Tony Wagner in his book, The Global Achievement Gap, states that there are 7 survival skills in Today's Global world.  These skills include:
  • Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
  • Collaboration across Networks and Leading by Influence
  • Agility and Adaptability
  • Initiative and Entrepreneurialism
  • Effective Oral and Written Communication
  • Accessing and Analyzing Information
  • Curiosity and Imagination
These skills can't be taught through textbooks.  They must be learned through active learning in the classroom by the students. Teachers cannot teach knowledge.  They can create situations through which students can learn.  

Learning in our schools must be "Teacher Lead, but Student Driven."

What is the Difference?


A good perspective on 21st Century Learning is shared in by baccalaureate.com. They consider the difference between 21st and 20th Century Learning. Their chart defines the difference on this page.  This discussion is well-considered. They provide a chart that compares 20th Century and 21st Century Learning.

The characteristics begin with:
  • 20th Century Education is teacher-centered with a fragmented curriculum, students working in isolation memorizing facts.
  • 21st Century Education is student-centered with real-live, relevant, collaborative project-based learning.
Take some time to review and digest the rest of the table.  Does it fit your idea of 21st Century Learning?  Does it fit your vision of what you want to see in your classrooms?

Spend some time reading and digesting these ideas throughout the rest of the page. There are many links that join a variety of resources. Follow all of the links and at least review their contents as you build your vision of a 21st Century Classroom.  

What is a 21st Century Educator?
These previous resources have addressed what a 21st Century Educator should do.  But how can they be identified?  Alan November is a writer and educator who has spent his life defining student-centered learning.  He updated interview questions that a principal could ask to see if a prospective educator has an updated perspective of learning and education.  Review his questions and consider how your colleagues would answer them.  Consider how YOU would answer them. 

Interview Questions for New Teachers in 21st Century Schools
by Alan November


Identifying a 21st Century Classroom

Capturing, Sharing and Resolving Perplexity 
I discovered a Math Teacher who captured the essence of 21st Century Learning, Dan Meyer. Dan Meyer is not just any math teacher. He has defined his teaching at the art of dealing with perplexity. He begins his lessons by challenging his students by asking questions and posting problems.  Dan Meyer presented the opening Keynote at the CUE 2014 conference in March. Spend 45 minutes watching his presentation and you may develop a new perspective on teaching.  He talks about how to make learning meaningful for your students by making problems/learning perplexing instead of just engaging.



Characteristics of Student-Centered Classrooms (Iowa Core)
Is your classroom (or classrooms where you are taking classes) student-centered? One of the most important parts of creating 21st Century Classrooms is to make the students active learners in the process. But the question remains, HOW?  You will also find these 5 Characteristics of Effective Instruction useful as you begin to use the following Walkthrough assessment tool.

21st Century Classroom Walkthrough
Principal Shawn Holloway (Manson Northwest Webster in NW, Iowa) talks about assessing effective instruction in his classrooms using a walkthrough procedure. He created a check sheet that he used as a guide in his reviewed what he saw in classes as he Managed By Wandering Around.  

Here is a link to a Google Doc version of this MNW Walkthrough Form
You will use this as a guide for evaluating yourself or a colleague in how you/he/she/them  teaches.

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Module 1: Introduction to the Class and New Literacies

nasa.gov
Welcome to your RWLD.   This RWLD is your resource page that includes an assortment of Readings, Watchings, Listenings and Doings. This multimedia approach was designed to improve the learning experience in multiple ways:
  • New Gen Learners (Millennial/Gen Y ages 18-35 and Gen Z ages 4 - 17) are able to process multiple forms of input. The RWLD approach provides content that includes text, video, audio, imagery and interactive.
  • Even older learners enjoy differing ways to absorb information. RWLDs address differentiated learning needs as well.
 Your assignments will be found in the eLearning website.  They may be mentioned in the RWLD, but the real instructions are on each of the assignment sheets.

This will be an exciting semester.  The modules will be released as time progresses, so you won't be able to review the whole course content at this introduction.  

Let's begin by reviewing some of the resources we will be using.   These are not your assignments for this week, they are just an opportunity for you to review some of what we will be using.
This week explore the concept of New Literacies.  As noted earlier, the specifics of these assignments are not here. They are in the Module #1 folder on eLearning.

Tuesday, February 6, 2018

Module 3: Integrating Digital Technology

Integrating digital technologies into your curriculum is much more than just adding a computer to the lesson. Technology must be considered as a tool that will support learning experiences. It must be selected based upon pedagogical needs rather than the other way around.

Effective learning involves challenging learners with situations that are relevant to their lives and are challenging enough to interest them and engage them in the learning process. When educators discuss levels of intellectual challenge, they typically compare higher-order thinking to lower-order thinking.  These terms are best described by using Bloom's Taxonomy.

Thinking Blooms
Bloom's Taxonomy was first published in 1954 when Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues wanted to create a hierarchy of terms that they could use when they were describing various types of questions that they might use on a test.  Since then, the taxonomy has taken on a broader meaning which educators used to also describe educational activities.


Kathy Schrock is an educator who is a pioneer educator who has been enhancing learning through technology from the very beginning. Visit her Kathy Schrock's Guide to Everything site for ANYTHING on tech integration.  More specifically, she has modernized Bloom's taxonomy by aligning it with apps. Take a look at her Bloomin' Apps page for a plethora of possibilities when it comes to supporting learning through technology.  

Is there any sense in classifying teaching strategies, questions, Web tools using an organizer like Bloom's Taxonomy? Can pedagogical activities actually be restricted to one of 6 classifications? Probably not. Grouping tools like these are designed to provide a vocabulary for discussions between professionals.  Using these classifications we can distinguish teaching for memorization or developing problem-solving skills.

Adding Technology to the Mix
Technology can be used in a learning environment but will it make a difference? It all depends on HOW technology is used. Like Bloom's Taxonomy, technology can be integrated in a variety of ways. These may include teachers who operate at a basic level by using PowerPoint presentations to support their lecture-driven methods. They also include the teachers who step back and encourage students to use these tools in innovative ways to create new projects and experiences.

The problem has been to find a vocabulary to define these various levels of integration.  Apple Computer sponsored a decade-long research project entitled Apple Classrooms of the Tomorrow (ACOT). This project involved providing technology-rich classrooms by filling them with Apple IIgs computers AND providing one for each of the students' homes (20th century 1:1 computing.)  As they examined the various levels on which teachers used technology, they identified 5 stages including: Entry, Adoption, Adaption, Appropriation, and Innovation. You might want to refer to this article by Debra Rain.  It is from the 90s but it shows how Apple unveiled the various levels of learning with technology, What is Effective Integration of Technology and Does It Make a Difference. Please note that these levels of adoption exist in any teaching/learning situation whether it is in corporate, PK-12 or post-secondary settings.

SAMR -  Substitute/Augment/Modify/Redefine
Another model that is popular in schools today is the SAMR model. It was developed by Ruben R. Puentedura, Ph.D. to describe a ladder of implementation that occurs as you integrate technology into your curriculum. 

Trisha Fyfe created a Sophia.org website to introduce you to the SAMR model.  Watch the video and then take the quiz (upper right corner) to see what you know.  Repeat the quiz over and over to perfect your understanding.  (this is not graded for the class but works well as study tool). This resources could be useful when you work with other teachers.

How would you match the ACOT 5 stages and the SAMR model?  Do they directly link to one another?

ACOT 5 Stages (TIM)                       SAMR
Entry                                               Simulation
Adoption                                         Augmentation
Adaption                                         Modification
Appropriation                                  Redefinition
Innovation

How would YOU compare the ACOT 5 Stages (TIM) and SAMR?  Explore your ideas using this Google Drawing.  You can't change the original, but you can make a copy of it and then modify it any way you can imagine.




Technology Integration Matrix
The key to successful integration requires a system to integrate the research on Learning Environments with what has been learned about technology adoption. In 2005, the Florida Department of Education created their Technology Integration Matrix (TIM).  This is a matrix that uses a series of 5 steps in technology adoption that is similar to the ACOT set.  It also has a set of desired learning environment characteristics which include Active, Collaborative, Constructive, Authentic and Goal-Directed. 

USE THIS MATRIX: While the Florida TIM was the original, I would like to suggest that you savor the  Arizona flavor of this matrix. It is essentially the same but it has video examples sorted by grade level.  Past students have noted that this matrix is easier to understand and use.

Go see Arizona TIM and play around for a while to see what they have to offer.  You will find video examples of lessons and lesson plans pertaining to a variety of subjects.

NOTE: I have been looking for such a matrix that displays this in a corporate training format, but to no avail.


Here is a 13-minute video used in an ISTE workshop.  It provides useful background for understanding TIM.  It is based upon the Arizona version.



Here is a Table of Summary Descriptors for the TIM that might be useful for reference.

All Together Now

Here is the Technology Integration slideshow that I used in class. The graphics should be useful for making sense of the TPACK, SAMR, and TPACK frameworks. Look for the recurring themes throughout the frameworks and consider the vocabulary that it provides for you.  How will you use this with your teachers, colleagues, and administrators?


Barriers to Technology Integration
Change is not always easy.  Even if an innovation can obviously improve learning situations, there are a number of things that can get in the way.  In some cases, it has to do with institutional barriers that get in the way.  Review (look for the highpoints) an article, Barriers to Adopting Emerging Technologies in Education by Rogers.  This article looks at potential problems in the PK-12 as well as the University level schools.

Sometimes the problem is in the attitudes and belief systems of the teachers. This is another article which explores the Beliefs and Practices of teachers in the ACOT study.
Changes in Teacher's Beliefs and Practices in Technology-Rich Classrooms by Dwyer, Ringstaff and Sandholtz  (Note: This information won't really be used until next module, but I wanted you to have it to ponder for a while.)

Extra Resources: (Not Required)
Here are a few resources that I found that you might find useful when you are working with your colleagues and you are looking for materials to introduce SAMR and TIM.  (This is NOT additional required reading.  These are just some resources that could be useful.)
Made with Padlet

Assignment:
Your assignment will ask you to use the Technology Integration Model to assess lessons/learning experiences and decide how you could move them to the right along the technology axis in the TIM matrix.

You will submit the link to your Google Doc in the Module 3 submission forum. 

Refer to the Module 3 page in eLearning for specifics and rubric
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